Ancient Chinese beer recipe reveals surprisingingredient
Beer recipes change over time. Hops, for example—whichgive many a modern brewski its bitter, citrusy flavor—are a relatively recentaddition to the beverage, first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninthcentury. Now, researchers have found a surprising ingredient in residue from5000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While excavating two pits at a site inthe central plains of China, scientists discovered pottery fragments from pots,funnels, amphorae, and stoves (stove fragment pictured). The different shapesof the containers suggest they were used to brew, filter, and store beer—they may beancient “beer-making toolkits,”and theearliest direct evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers reportonline today in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.To test that hypothesis, the team examined the yellowish, dried dregs insidethe vessels. About a third of the starch grains they found were pitted,swollen, folded, or distorted—types of mangling that can occur during themalting and mashing needed to make beer. The majority of the grains—about80%—were from cereal crops like millet and barley, and about10% were bits oftubers, including yam and lily, which would have sweetened the brew, thescientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: The crop was domesticated inwestern Eurasia and didn’t become a staple food in central China until about2000years ago, according to the researchers. d on that timing, theysuggest barley may have arrived in the region not as food, but as fodder forbrewing beer.
46. A) Britons have cut their spending on it.
47. B) It will remain gloomy.
48. C) Luxurious features add much to the price.
49. A) They are particular about the quality of toilet paper.
50. D) Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper.
51.B) She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly.
52.D) They were offered nicotine replacements.
53.C) It is encouraging.
54.C) requires a lot of patience.
55.A) They find it even more difficult.
The Pearl River, thelargest river system of southern China that flows through Guangzhou, is thethird longest river in China, only second to the Yangtze River and the YellowRiver.
The Pearl RiverDelta isone of the most developed regions in China with an area of about11,000squarekilometers.
It is also the greatesturban areasin both size and population all over the world.
The nine largest cities ofthe Pearl River Delta totally have a population of more than57million. Sincethe Chinese reform and opening up in the late1970s, the Pearl River Delta hasbecome one of the major economic regions and manufacturing centers in China andthe world.